Elizabeth Anne VanderPutten
1. ID Number
2. Position of Person
In most cases, the ethnographer will give the exact position of the person. Where such identification is not made, use these definitions:
3. Time with Project
The term “project” refers to the specific mix of services funded by Youthwork. In some cases, this is coterminous with the group that provides services, i.e., only those persons paid by Youthwork are providing services. In most cases, the project takes place within a larger organization, i.e., a school, school district or community based organization. What is being asked here is how long the person worked on the Youthwork project.
4. Previous position
This question refers to the position the person held, if any, immediately preceding the present job. In some cases, the ethnographer will state what job the person held. In other cases, look for statements such as “When I was a teacher,” or “In the last project I worked at,”or “This is my first job” or statements about the individual by others such as “She does that because she used to be a teacher” or “He has a lot of contacts with business because of work with the Chamber of Commerce.”
In each case, the following definitions apply:
In most cases, the ethnographer will make specific references. Do not depend on the name since the ethnographer may be using a code. In many cases, fellow staff will make comments about the race of a person. Where direct evidence is not available, leave blank.
In most cases, the ethnographer will make specific reference. Staff will often give indirect evidence such as “this is my first job out of college” or “Older teachers aren’t as flexible” or “I wish I had done this before teaching for ten years.” Sometimes, direct evidence is available about one person’s age and then that person says “Ms. X is older than I” or “The younger staff get along better with the Director than older staff.” Where direct or strong inferential evidence is not available, leave blank.
Professional subgoals refer to those services and actions that the person believes are needed by youth to become employable. In looking for data to give answers, place primary evidence on what a person does as opposed to what the person says is important. On the other hand, do not disregard what a person says because this may be all the evidence available. Where the only evidence is talk, consider frequency and intensity of responses. Where talk contradicts actions, place greater emphasis on actions.
Each question is scored from (1) to (4). (1) is a very weak response——the person considers the subgoal to be very unimportant, never mentions it and is never observed in actions that indicate the subgoal is important. At the other extreme, a (4) indicates the person considers the subgoal very important——often talks about it or is frequently observed in actions that show the importance. In general, a score of (1) or (2) indicates a weak response, while a (3) or (4) indicates a strong response.
7. Private Sector Involvement in planning and operating programs
One of the four Youthwork focus areas, this question asks about the extent to which the person thinks it is important to work with private industry not only in giving youth jobs, but also in planning and operating the program. Look for references to frequent phone calls or visits to employers, positive or negative statements about employers participating in the program.
8. Academic Credit for Work Experience
The second Youthwork focus area, this question asks how important it is for the person to get youth participants credit toward graduation for working at a job site. To get a (4) on this question, the person would have to show great concern for getting youth credit in the academic areas -- English, mathematics, social studies. A (3) answer would be more appropriate for a person who worked hard at securing credit for youth, but did not mind if this credit was in the area of electives or vocational education. A (1) or (2) answer would indicate that the person considered the securing of credit as very unimportant or unimportant.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for statements such as “I spend most of my time arguing with the schools for credit” or “Credit make the job different than what a kid could get on his own” or “Kids really do learn math as cashiers.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for statements such as “We only get them academic credit because Youthwork requires it” or “Do you believe somebody actually asked me to give English credit to a person who was working because the student had to speak to adults?” or “Credits okay as long as its an elective and they don’t call it English or something important.”
9. Youth Participation in Planning
This was one of the focus areas of Youthwork, but all projects were expected to involve youth in planning to some extent. The question is asking how important it is to the person to involve students not only in decisions about what they will do, but also about the running of the program.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for statements such as “I would rather have the kids plan than actually get a job done.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for statements such as “These kids are just too immature to plan” or “It’s hard enough just to get them jobs without having to have them help get the jobs.”
10. Career Guidance Activities
There are a number of career guidance activities that fall within this category. The question is asking how important to the person is getting career information and skills to teenagers. This includes teaching them how to look for jobs, interview, fill out resumes. It also includes efforts to increase the students’ awareness of what jobs are available and what skills, experience or training are necessary to secure the jobs.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for actions such as bringing in guest speakers, bringing students to different work sites, showing students how to conduct themselves on job interviews. Look for statements such as “The most important thing is to help students look for careers and not just jobs” or “We can’t take for granted the fact that these kids know how to call up and make an appointment for a job” or “It’s important that kids not have un realistic goals.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for an emphasis on getting kids any kind of a job, the absence of lessons on job search and job knowledge. Look for statements like “There is no point in trying to get these kids to think about careers.”
11. Paid work experience
All projects had to provide paid work experience to at least some students. The question refers to how important it is to get the low—income students in the program jobs, and not the broader question of work for teenagers in general.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for major efforts to secure jobs; satisfy employers so they will hire later students, to work with others to get kids jobs. Look for statements such as “What these kids really need is money” or “If they can get jobs now, they will be able to get jobs later” A (4) would go to the person who indicates that the job and payment are very important by themselves; a (3) would be more appropriate for a person who thinks the payment for work is most important as a means to keep youth in school.
A (1) or (2) answer would go to those who make little or no effort to get youth jobs. Look for statements like “jobs take away from studying” or “these are only make-work jobs” or “we’re really just paying kids to go to school.
12. Instruction in basic and academic skills
This question refers to efforts made to teach youth how to read, write, and do arithmetic or to succeed in other academic subjects such as social studies or science.
For a (3) or (4) look for classes emphasizing skills or academics; efforts made to ensure that students learn the skills in all aspects of the program, efforts placed on lesson preparation. Look for statements such as “what these kids really need is to be able to read” or “we’ve got to improve the test scores of the youth” or “the best thing about the program is the youths are really learning.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for an absence of basic skills instruction or classes that emphasize social or personal well being no matter the title of the course. Look for statements such as “it’s too late for these kids to learn” or “schools don’t have much to teach street kids.”
13. Instruction aimed at attitude formation
This question asks the extent to which the person thinks it is important to teach students to be respectful, courteous, on time, responsible.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for consistent application of standards of attendance and punctuality; explanations to students about why attitudes are important; comments by students about staff harping on attitudes. Look for statements such as “I had to drop the student because she had been late——all the other students were looking to see what I would do” or “At least he called in from jail to say he wouldn’t be at the job site.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for an absence of standards of conduct; an acceptance of socially unacceptable behavior; comments by students that a particular staff member lets them get away with murder. Look for statements such as “These kids are beyond hope” or” I know I’m not insisting on attendance, but if I did the students would drop out.”
14. Training in specific job skills
This question refers to the emphasis placed by the person on training in skills related to a specific job: typing, welding, using cash—register, making fast—food hamburgers.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for classes on specific skills, attempts to get students specific skills training, emphasis at the job site on the specific skills needed to do the job. This can be difficult since in many cases the youth are given low— skills jobs which might appear not to need training. Look for statements such as “These kids will never get jobs unless they can learn to do something” or “These are dead—end jobs unless they can learn a skill” or “1 try to teach them something that they can use on another job”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for lack of emphasis on job skills training with perhaps a greater emphasis on general attitude or knowledge about jobs. Look for statements such as “any job experience counts at this point” or “Most of the jobs these kids will get don’t really require any skills.”
15. Counseling for personal and social needs
This question asks the extent to which the person thinks it is important to help students with personal questions such as how to get along with parents or teachers; how to deal with conflicts; how to deal with their own children. It is distinguished from counseling aimed at helping the youth find or keep a job.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for the person talking to students about these issues, holding counseling sessions, having “rap” groups in class. Look for statements such as “The most important thing we can offer is counseling: these kids bring a lot of baggage with them.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for the absence of such counseling session and an emphasis in class or at the job on basic or job— related skills. Look for statements such as “It’s my job to teach not counsel these kids.” or “I’m just not qualified to deal with these problems” or “sometimes I think we forget we’re a school.”
16. Providing supplemental services
Supplemental services are those services not generally provided by either a school or an employment agency. These services include referral to or provision of legal, babysitting, drug— rehabilitation services.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for phone calls to other agencies, visits to homes, court appearances. Look for statements such as “this kid would come to class if only he had someone to look after his child” or “we’ll take him in after he’s been to one of the drug programs.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for an absence of such referrals and a lack of cooperation with such agencies. Look for comments such as “I’m not a babysitter” or “do they think this is a police station.”
19. Sex role de-stereotyping
This question asks the importance to the person of overcoming sex role stereotyping in the job or in the classroom. It also is concerned with the person’s emphasis on having youth explore if not choose non-traditional occupations or job sites.
For a (3) or (4) look for classes on sexism; efforts to put youth in non-traditional jobs; selection of non-sexist books. Look for statements such as “we have to make sure that the girls don’t just choose nursing or teacher aide sites,” or “I won’t use that employer because he is a sexist.”
For a (1) or (2) look for a lack of emphasis on non—traditional roles or a pattern of placing students in traditional job sites. Look for statements such as “kids should choose jobs where they can succeed and boys scare the little kids in school”
18. Setting and maintaining academic standards
This question refers to how important the person thinks it is to hold students to some standards of performance in basic skills or academic areas. It should be kept in mind that all the students in the projects were low income, and most had a history of low school achievement. High academic standards could mean requiring the student to pay attention to and achieve in a remedial reading class. On the other hand, it should be expected that a person who is committed to maintaining academic standards would probably experience frustration or tension if that is the most he or she could get from students.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for structured lessons, examinations, homework, emphasis on the student learning. Look for statements such as “we have to have higher standards than the public schools” or “our graduation requirements must be tough or the kids will think we’re just another group of adults they can rip off.” As noted above, these people will probably show tension or feelings of failure in maintaining standards.
For a (1) or (2) answer look for non-demanding classes or lessons; few homework or in-class assignments, little attention on the part of the staff person to making students learn. Look for comments such as “what I really care about is having students like me” or “what these kids really need is a diploma, not another school lesson.”
19. Raising youth’s level of aspiration
For many of the youth in these programs, getting any kind of a job is a step up in the world. This question refers to the emphasis placed by the person on getting the youth to complete school, enroll in college, and look for a better life. It should be kept in mind that what are one person’s aspirations may not be another. A migrant parent might not think that a teacher who wishes to get a student to stop migrating is raising aspirations. What counts for this question, however, is whether the person thinks he or she is raising aspirations.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for discussions with students about what they want to be in life; classes aimed at showing what possibilities there are; attempts to get students into jobs that the student doesn’t feel qualified for. Look for statements such as “I sometimes worry that I may be raising expectations unrealistically, but I think I should do it” or “Without this program the students would be no better than their parents.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for an absence of these activities. The person will probably emphasize getting the students any kind of a job. Look for statements such as “She really thinks she could become a doctor which is silly given her family income” or “the best thing we can do for these kids is getting them to accept the world the way it is.”
20. Helping youth with their person problems
This question is similar to counseling but places a greater emphasis on one to one relationships, on the staff person having a close, personal relationship with the student.
For a (3) or (4) look for lots of individual talk sessions or the staff person probing into the student’s personal life. “It is most important that the youth get to like himself” or “Nothing good can happen till these kids get their act together.”
For a (1) or (2) look for a more distant relationship between the staff person and the student. Look for comments about being unprepared to deal with students problems.
21. Improving the quality of the worksite
This question refers to the emphasis placed by the person on ensuring that the job experience is more than just “putting in time.” It includes attempts to relate work to academics; increase job skills training; teach about careers, be a new experience.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for attempts to get higher quality jobs; frequent visits to the job site, close supervision of students. Look for comments such as “I want this job experience to be more than just fast—food job” or “It’s important that the boy really learn something here so I try to give him a lot of time.”
For a (1) or (2) look for a relatively cavalier attitude toward the job site; the willingness to get the youth any kind of a job, or lack of emphasis on relating the job to any other skills. Look for comments such as “well at least he has a job” or H just don’t have the time to visit the sites.”
This question refers to the emphasis the individual places on meeting the research requirements of the contract and maintaining a semblance of research conditions.
For a (3) or (4) look for a willingness to complete forms, meet with the evaluator or ethnographer, keep accurate records. Look for statements such as “It’s important that we find out what works rather than always doing the same thing” or “The money for research is worth it.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for a refusal to comply with research forms, hostility to the evaluators. Look for comments such as “All they’re interested in is research. I bet I could run this program on paper and no one would ever know if a kid got a job.”
Questions in this section refer to the extent to which the person places emphasis on the goals of the project or organization. Project is defined as the distinct set of activities supported by Youthwork funds. The term organization refers here to the group within which both the project and the individual operates, e.g., the school, chamber of commerce, place of work.
All questions are scored from (1) to (4) where a (1) indicates the person places a very low emphasis on the subgoal and a (4) a very high emphasis.
23. Cooperation with others
This question refers to the extent to which the person is willing to work with others to provide services to youth.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for service on inter—organizational committees, visits to people in other organizations, sharing information about a youth. Look for statements such as “The teachers are really helpful” or “We couldn’t do this by ourselves.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for limited participation in meetings, or reluctant, hostile participation. Look for comments such as “We don’t need anyone else” or “The regular schools have ignored us and that’s just as well.”
24. Promoting the project image with funding source
This question refers to the extent to which participants are willing to extend themselves in order to promote a positive image with the funding source, in most cases Youthwork. For a (3) or (4) look for a general willingness to comply with paperwork and other requirements of the grant or contract, to meet with Youthwork personnel, to point out the positive aspects without hiding limitations of the project. Look for comments such as “I don’t like it, but it really isn’t too bad having to do the MIS reports” or “Thank God the money got here, we can meet the requirements.”
For a (1) or (2) look for a refusal to complete forms or a willingness to lie or distort data. Look for comments such as
“Youthwork has been nothing but trouble” or “The money isn’t worth the effort.
25. Promoting the project image with the community
Community refers to the individuals or organizations (a) in the local geographic area served by the project and (b) which are directly or indirectly affected by the project. The question asks the extent to which the person is willing to exert effort to ensure that the project is well regarded by the community.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for a willingness to serve on advisory panels, attendance at meetings with community personnel; attempts to involve the community in planning or implementation. Look for comments such as “the community is with us all the way” or “The best thing about the director is he knows everyone in the community.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for refusals to talk to community people, disparaging remarks about the project or the community, or direct action to use the community against the project. Look for comments about the uselessness of dealing with the community or “The waste of time meetings are.”
26. Commitment to organizational subgoals
The term “organization” again refers here to the larger entity within which the project or the individual operates. This could be the school, place of employment, CETA office. The question asks the extent to which the person can both articulate and is committed to the subgoals of the organization.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for attendance at organizational meetings; long involvement in the organization. Look for comments that are positive about the organization; that indicate the person identifies with it and is proud to be a member, for example, “this is a great place to work.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for signs of alienation from the organization——refusal to attend meetings; disparaging comments about the organization or the leaders or members of it.
27 Ownership of the project
This question refers to the extent to which the person feels that he or she has some control over the direction of the project; some voice in the major decisions.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for participation in decision— making; work on refunding proposals; participation in planning meetings. Look for comments such as “I feel a part of this project” or “We work together on things here.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for non-participation in decision-making; exclusion either by self-selection or by authorities from planning meetings. Look for comments about feelings of alienation, distance from the project, a sense that the person does a job and that’s it.
The questions in this section refer to the personal needs of people and the extent to which those needs are met. Each question is scored from (1) to (4), but the meaning for the questions varies slightly.
For questions 28 through 30, an answer of (1) or (2) indicates that the person worries very little or little about the problem or that these needs have been satisfied. A score of (3) or (4) indicates that the person worries somewhat or a great deal about these things or that these subgoals have not been met.
28. Personal safety
This question refers to the degree to which the person worries about his or her personal safety as a result of participating in the project.
A score of (3) or (4) indicates that the person worries a great deal, that the sense of security is not present. Look for actions such as leaving the area only with a buddy; locking classroom doors; not letting youths stay late. Look for comments such as “This neighborhood scares me” or “This job isn’t worth the worry of getting beat up.”
For a score of (1) or (2) look for the absence of such fear—induced behavior, a kind of comfort or security in the building or in dealing with youth. Look for the absence of statements about safety or danger.
29. Economic security
The question refers to the degree the person worries about keeping the current job or getting another one.
A score of (3) or (4) indicates the person is both insecure about keeping a job and worried about the consequences of it. Look for job hunting; discussions with supervisors. Look for comments such as “This is the first professional job I’ve had and there are few prospects for other jobs in this area” or “I really hope we get refunded or I don’t know what I will do.”
A score of (1) or (2) indicates either that the person is not in danger of loosing his or her job, or doesn’t worry about it. Look for absence of job hunting activities. Look for statements such as “I’d just as soon quit this job and go back to graduate school” or “I can always get another job that pays as little as this one.”
30. A structured, ordered environment
This question refers to the extent to which the person worries about maintaining a sense of order and structure in dealing with youth, or the extent to which these needs are met.
A score of (3) or (4) indicates a high need for order and a sense that such order has been achieved. Look for attempts to structure classroom or work activities, to have things follow standard procedures.
A score of (1) or (2) indicates that the person does not worry or devote much energy to maintaining a structured environment. Look for an acceptance of apparently haphazard behavior by students and staff, a willingness to live with ambiguity about where students are or what they are supposed to be doing.
For questions 31 to 34, a score of (1) indicates that the person’s believes that certain needs are not being met or actually being thwarted by participation in the project. On the other extreme, a score of (4) indicates that the person his needs are more than adequately met.
31. Fairly rewarded
This question refers to the extent to which the person believes he or she is rewarded in both monetary and psychic terms.
A score of (3) or (4) indicates that person believes him or herself to be fairly or more than fairly rewarded. Look for comments about how happy the person is in the job, how he or she gets more out of the work than gives, how the salary is higher than a previous salary.
A score of (1) or (2) indicates that the person believes him or herself to be less than adequately rewarded. Look for comments about the unfairness of it all, about how all the person does is give and never gets back.
32. Career advancement
The question refers to the extent to which the person feels that participation in the project affected his or her career.
A score of (3) or (4) would indicate that the person thinks the project has had a positive or very positive affect. Look for comments about how it has opened up job opportunities, or given them new skills that will pay off in the future.
A score of (1) or (2) indicates that the person thinks the project has had no effect, or a negative effect. Look for statements such as “I wish I had never left my other job” or “this is a dead end street.”
33. Personally helping youth
This questions asks the extent to which the person thinks that he or she is helping youth as a result of participation in the project.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for statements such as “this is the first time in my career that I know the kids are better off in my class,” or “I’ve watched them grow so in the year in the program.”
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for statements such as “I feel so frustrated in this job” or “all the paperwork keeps me from helping the students.” This score would also be appropriate for someone who has very little connection with the, project and consequently does not think his or her participation in the project helps the youth.
34. Participation in personally rewarding activities
The question asks the extent to which the project makes it possible for the person to participate in activities that are pleasing or rewarding. What constitutes rewarding activities varies from person to person, so there is no set of activities that can be considered rewarding per se. Even filling out federal forms can be rewarding for some people! The question is not what is objectively rewarding, but what the person thinks is so.
For a (3) or (4) answer, look for the absence of complaints about job requirements and positive statements about what the person does. If the person makes statements about enjoying teaching, for example, then look for a heavy emphasis on those assignments.
For a (1) or (2) answer, look for a plethora of complaints about job requirements, about the youth, about the other personnel. If the person has expressed a dislike for something, look to see if he or she is required to perform the task.
The questions in this section refer to the person’s overall evaluation of the project, or its relationship to other organizations or projects.
The questions are scored from (1) to (4), but again the exact meaning varies.
For questions 35 — 38 a (1) score indicates a very low evaluation of the project while a (4) score indicates a very high evaluation or positive response.
35. Project helping youth
The questions asks the extent to which the person believes the project is helping youth. It is perfectly reasonable for a person to feel he or she is helping youth a great deal, while at the same time, thinking the project as a whole is a failure.
For a (3) or (4) look for statements such as “the kids have really improved since they joined the project” or “teachers are amazed at how much she has improved this year. She actually talks in class.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for statements such as “we really aren’t serving the right youths in this program” or “we let these kids get away with murder.”
36. Project quality vs. other similar projects
The question asks participants to rate the project in relation to other federally funded, youth employment projects.
A (3) or (4) answer indicates that the person thinks the project is comparatively better than other projects. Look for statements such as “this is a well run project” or “we never worry about that project. They know what they’re doing.” or “However bad this project is, its better than any other around.”
A (1) or (2) answer indicates that the person thinks the project is comparatively poorer than other projects. Look for comments such as “This project is not as well run as other projects” or “This project pays the kids for coming to class and I think that is not good.”
37. Project vs. public schools
The question asks the person to compare the experiences the youths have in the project compared to what they would have in a regular public school.
A (3) or (4) answer indicates that the person thinks the students are better off or much better off in the project than in public schools. Look for statements such as “We may not succeed with these kids, but they’re better off here than in the public schools that failed them” or “In public schools these kids would be forgotten.”
A (1) or (2) answer indicates that the person thinks the students would be worse off or the same in a public school. Look for statements such as “we do different things, but who is to say that’s better.” or “in public schools, at least, the students have to do some work for credit.”
38. Project continuation with local funding
This question asks if the person thinks the project should be continued in its general form (which in all cases includes some payment to youth) with local funding if federal funding is withdrawn.
A (3) or (4) answer indicates a probably or definitely yes. Look for actions aimed at securing local funding, including meeting with school officials or writing proposals to the state. Look for positive statements about the need for local funds.
An answer of (1) or (2) indicates a definitely not or a probably not attitude. Look for statements such as “We should continue if federal funds are available, but not otherwise” or “It’s too bad that only the federal government can support projects like this.”
For questions 39 and 40 a (1) answer indicates a very low perceived level of conflict, while a (4) answer indicates a very high level of perceived conflict.
39. Perceived conflict between project and organizational subgoals.
Tthe question asks the extent to which the person felt that the project and organizational subgoals were in conflict.
A (3) or (4) answer indicates a high degree of conflict. Look for differences in how the person behaves in the organization and when in the project. Look for comments that indicate the person feels tension, that he or she has had to lower standards or that the presence of the students at the work site makes it difficult to make a profit. Look for comments about the difficulty of getting schools to give academic credit for work experience.
A (1) or (2) answer indicates a low degree of conflict. Look for the absence of statements about how the project goals differ from the organization. Look for statements such as “we’re different in some ways from schools, but we work together well” or “the schools would really like to have the funds to do this kind of thing.”
40. Perceived conflict between professional and project subgoals.
The question asks the person the extent to which he or she feels conflict or tension between what she would like to do as a professional and what she is required to do as a member of the project.
For a (3) or (4) answer look for statements such as “I didn’t know I would have to lower my standards so much for these youths” or “they really don’t let me do what these kids need.”
For a (1) or (2) answer look for
the absence of conflict statements and the presence of statements such as “This
is the first time I’ve really been able to do what I wanted to for students.”