CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS
OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENT 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


                             
SUBJECT: STANDARD FOR TABULAR PRESENTATION                    
                             
EFFECTIVE DATE:   CES STANDARD 87-04-04
                             
PURPOSE: To ensure that tables used in CES publications display data in such a way that readers can evaluate the accuracy and significance of the results presented.
                             
  o All tables must have a short title concisely stating the subject of the table and the relevant time period.  
                             
  o All variables used in a table, whether bivariate or multivariate, must be labeled with the name of the variable and with categories clearly labeled.    
                             
  o When data presented in a table come from multiple sources or come from a source which is not the direct subject of the report, the sources must clearly be cited at the bottom of the table. Multiple sources must be footnoted so the reader knows exactly which survey or report was the source of the data.
                             
  o All row and column totals must be presented in tables.              
                             
  o For tables of percentages or rates, population sizes must be presented at the bottom of the table. If different rows or columns of the table are based on different population sizes, each population size must be presented at the bottom of the table.    
                             
  o Standard errors (se's) or confidence intervals (ci's) on statistics in tables can be handled in two ways. The first and preferred method is to include se's or ci's in the table being presented, either in a separate subsection of the table or in columns accompanying the statistics being presented. The second method is to have a separate table of standard errors on the statistics being presented which follows the tables in the report.
                             
RELATED STANDARDS:                          
                             
  o CES Standard for Dissemination of Survey Data and Results, 87-04-05 
o CES Standard for Estimating Sampling Error, 87-05-02
     
                             
RELATED CHECKLISTS, FORMS AND DOCUMENTS:                      
                             
  o Suggestions for Use of Graphics, p. 31                  
  o NCES Guidelines for Tabular Presentation                
  o James Filliben and David DesJardins, The Graphic Analysis and Display of Statistical Data, Washington Statistical Society, 1986.
  o Calvin F. Schmid and Stanton E. Schmid, Handbook of Graphic Presentation, 1979.          
  o Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, 1983.